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  • [hal-00995763] Les dimensions ontologiques, stratégiques et organisationnelles de l'appropriation du concept de développement durable en entreprise
    16 février 2018
    Simple effet de mode ? Pure rhétorique ? Jusqu'au milieu des années 90, les débats autour du développement durable (désormais DD) et de ses effets sur notre mode de fonctionnement ne semblaient que peu concerner le monde de l'entreprise. A quelques exceptions près, sa politique et ses choix stratégiques semblaient se focaliser davantage sur le respect des principes du modèle actionnarial que sur les conséquences sociales et environnementales de ses activités. Pour beaucoup, ces objectifs orientés prioritairement actionnaires semblaient antithétiques, et pour le moins antagonistes, avec des principes de développement durable. Quelques années plus tard, si l'on s'en réfère à la multiplicité des déclarations actuelles en faveur de ce dernier, la firme semble en totale métamorphose. Chartes éthiques, publications de rapports annuels sur l'environnement, marketing vert, produits éco conçus, les entreprises européennes, à l'image de leurs homologues anglo-saxonnes, semblent aujourd'hui plus que jamais avoir touché du doigt la nécessité d'un développement durable. Témoignant largement de cette prise de conscience, l'évolution comportementale en faveur de la prise en compte du concept, et de son extension managériale la RSE, dans les activités de la firme n'est plus à démontrer. Mais quels impacts peut avoir l'appropriation du concept sur cette dernière ? Au travers d'un cheminement théorique articulant les dimensions ontologiques, stratégiques et organisationnelles de cette démarche d'appropriation, cet article propose un modèle théorique qui, basé sur une lecture multi-niveaux de l'appropriation du DD (éthique, stratégique et organisationnelle), identifie deux configurations ou archétypes d'appropriation du DD.
  • [hal-01382910] Les auto-entrepreneurs et les stagiaires : des emplois atypiques générateurs de « flexicarité » ?
    16 février 2018
    L’Accord National Interprofessionnel (ANI) du 11 janvier 2013 a mis en lumière l’importance et l’actualité des enjeux qui entourent la question des emplois atypiques induits par la recherche simultanée de flexibilité pour les entreprises, et de sécurité professionnelle pour les individus ; autrement dit, la « flexicurité », selon le néologisme inventé il y a une quinzaine d’années. L’auto-entrepreneuriat ainsi que le stage constituent deux formes extrêmes d’emplois atypiques exercés en dehors d’une relation salariale. Le succès des inscriptions au régime de l’auto-entrepreneuriat ainsi que le nombre important de stagiaires méritent que l’on s’y intéresse, d’autant plus que ces dispositifs s’apparentent parfois à du salariat déguisé extrêmement flexible pour les entreprises, mais très peu sécurisé pour les personnes. D’où le nouveau néologisme proposé dans le titre de l’article : « flexicarité » qui combine flexibilité et précarité.
  • [hal-01700407] L'entreprise du 21 ème siècle résiliente et ambidextre, le numérique comme hypothèse de travail (2016)
    8 février 2018
    Constitutifs de la vie même des organisations, les cycles et les chocs qui les accompagnent, peuvent dans certaines circonstances leur être fatal si elles ne font pas preuve de résilience pour les absorber. Les organisations se trouvent actuellement confronté à deux défis majeurs, une contraction économique depuis 2008, une transition technologique qui bouscule les modèles de gestion existants et chahute leur éco-système. Dès lors il s’agit bien d’un changement de paradigme majeur dans la gestion des organisations qui doivent tout en explorant de nouveaux terrains d’activité, préserver leurs ressources. L’organisation doit veiller à laisser s’exprimer l’agilité des éléments du système qui la composent et celle de ses collaborateurs pour leur permettre de répondre au défi de l’ambidextrie organisationnel face à l’incertitude et l’imprévisibilité qui caractérisent les environnements économiques contemporains. Pour lui permettre d’accéder à cette agilité, à développer la propriété de résilience et préserver ses capacités, l’information critique doit pouvoir être sécurisée et délivrée à temps via des systèmes d’information évolutifs sauf à être condamnée à ne pas pouvoir maintenir l’équilibre de son écosystème.
  • [hal-01150258] Reflection-in-Action Markers for Reflection-on-Action in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Settings
    8 février 2018
    We describe an exploratory study on the use of markers set during a synchronous collaborative interaction (reflection-in-action) for later construction of reflection reports upon the collaboration that occurred (reflection-on-action). During two sessions, pairs of students used the Visu videoconferencing tool for synchronous interaction and marker setting (positive, negative or free) and then individual report building on the interaction (using markers or not). A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted on the markers put in action, on their use to reflect on action and on the reflection categories of the sentences in these reports. Results show that the students (1) used the markers equally as a note-taking and reflection means during the interaction, (2) used mainly positive markers both to reflect in and on action; (3) paid more attention in identifying what worked in their interaction (conservative direction) rather than in planning on how to improve their group work (progressive direction); (4) used mainly their own markers to reflect on action, with an increase in the use of their partners' markers in the second reflection reports; (5) reflected mainly on their partner in the first reflection reports and more on themselves in the second reports to justify themselves and to express their satisfaction.
  • [hal-00652620] Development of an Assistance Environment for Tutors Based on a Co-Adaptive Design Approach
    8 février 2018
    In this paper, we present a co-adaptive design approach named TE-Cap (Tutoring Experience Capitalisation) that we applied for the development of an assistance environment for tutors. Since tasks assigned to tutors in educational contexts are not well defined, we are developing an environment which responds to needs which are not precisely identified or not expressed by these users. Our approach rests on three development cycles which aim at gradually clarifying and refining users' needs and expectations which we translate into computing functionalities. Each cycle is composed of three steps that allow the use of prototypes developed with regard, on the one hand, to theories of users' activities and, on the other hand, to the needs that we have identified to be observed. We finally obtain a stable typology of users' needs and expectations upon which we base the development of the computer environment. We illustrate the two first cycles of this iterative and co-adaptive approach during the development of TE-Cap. We then discuss the difficulties raised by this type of approach.
  • [hal-01130953] A trace-based approach to identifying users’ engagement and qualifying their engaged-behaviours in interactive systems: application to a social game
    8 février 2018
    Analysing and monitoring users' engaged-behaviours continuously and under ecologically valid conditions can reveal valuable information for designers and practitioners, allowing them to analyse, design and monitor the interactive mediated activity, and then to adapt and personalise it. An interactive mediated activity is a human activity supported by digital interactive technologies. While classical metric methods fall within quantitative approaches, this paper proposes a qualitative approach to identifying users' engagement and qualifying their engaged-behaviours from their traces of interaction. Traces of interaction represent the users' activities with an interactive environment. The basis of our approach is to transform low-level traces of interaction into meaningful information represented in higher-level traces. For this, our approach combines three theoretical frameworks : the Self-Determination Theory, the Activity Theory and the Trace Theory. Our approach has been implemented and tested in the context of the QUEJANT Projet. QUEJANT targets the development of a system allowing the actors of Social Gaming to analyse players' engagement from an analysis of their activity traces. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we implemented the whole process in a prototype and applied it to 12 players' interaction data collected over four months. Based on these interaction data, we were able to identify engaged and non-engaged users and to qualify their types of engaged-behaviours. We also conducted a user study based on a validation of our results by experts. The high prediction rate obtained confirms the performance of our approach. We finally discuss the limitations of our approach, the potential fields of application and the implications for digital behavioural interventions.
  • [hal-01130945] A Multiplayer Learning Game based on Mixed Reality to Enhance Awareness on Archaeology
    8 février 2018
    Our research deals with the development of a new type of game-based learning environment: (M)MORPG based on mixed reality, applied in the archaeological domain. In this paper, we propose a learning scenario that enhances players' motivation thanks to individual, collaborative and social activities and that offers a continuous experience between the virtual environment and real places (archaeological sites, museum). After describing the challenge to a rich multidisciplinary approach involving both computer scientists and archaeologists, we present two types of game: multiplayer online role-playing games and mixed reality games. We build on the specificities of these games to make the design choices described in the paper. We also present three modular features we have developed to support independently three activities of the scenario. The proposed approach aims at raising awareness among people on the scientific approach in Archaeology, by providing them information in the virtual environment and encouraging them to go on real sites. We finally discuss the issues raised by this work, such as the tensions between the perceived individual, team and community utilities, as well as the choice of the entering point in the learning scenario (real or virtual) for the players' involvement in the game.
  • [hal-01131205] Defining Engagement and Characterizing Engaged-Behaviors in Digital Gaming
    8 février 2018
    Background. Although the analysis of engagement is crucial for digital entertainment or learning games, the concept of players' or learners' engagement is still confusing. Indeed, in digital games research, several concepts referring to the idea of engagement such as immersion, involvement, presence, and flow are used. Also, while the characterization of engaged-behaviors may be useful for designers or teachers in assessing players' or learners' engagement, the nature and the scope of these behaviors are still unclear. Aim. In this article, based on a multidisciplinary state of the art on the concept of engagement, we define and delineate the concepts related to digital gaming engagement. Results. We characterize engaged-behaviors by identifying four types of engagement: environmental, social, self, and action. We thus refine, disambiguate, and characterize the concepts of engagement and engaged-behaviors. This work therefore constitutes an effective support for analyzing, designing, assessing, and personalizing engaging activities in digital games.
  • [hal-00814394] How to Enhance Privacy within DaaS service Composition?
    8 février 2018
    The composition of DaaS (Data-as-a-Service) services is a powerful solution for building value-added applications on top of existing ones. However, privacy concerns are still among the key challenges that keep hampering DaaS composition. Indeed services may follow different, conflicting privacy specifications with respect to the data they use and provide. In this paper, we propose an approach for privacyaware composition of DaaS services. Our approach allows specifying privacy requirements and policies and verifying the compatibility of services involved in a composition. We propose an adaptation protocol that makes it possible to reconcile the privacy specifications of services when incompatibilities arise in a composition. We validate the applicability of our proposal through a set of experiments.
  • [hal-01669916] Comparison of Clinical Presentations and Outcomes Between Patients With TGFBR2 and FBN1 Mutations in Marfan Syndrome and Related Disorders
    8 février 2018
    mutations were recognized recently among patients with a Marfan-like phenotype. The associated clinical and prognostic spectra remain unclear. Methods and Results—Clinical features and outcomes of 71 patients with a TGFBR2 mutation (TGFBR2 group) were compared with 50 age-and sex-matched unaffected family members (control subjects) and 243 patients harboring FBN1 mutations (FBN1 group). Aortic dilatation was present in a similar proportion of patients in both the TGFBR2 and FBN1 groups (78% versus 79%, respectively) but was highly variable. The incidence and average age for thoracic aortic surgery (31% versus 27% and 3516 versus 3913 years, respectively) and aortic dissection (14% versus 10% and 3812 versus 399 years) were also similar in the 2 groups. Mitral valve involvement (myxomatous, prolapse, mitral regurgitation) was less frequent in the TGFBR2 than in the FBN1 group (all P0.05). Aortic dilatation, dissection, or sudden death was the index event leading to genetic diagnosis in 65% of families with TGFBR2 mutations, versus 32% with FBN1 mutations (P0.002). The rate of death was greater in TGFBR2 families before diagnosis but similar once the disease had been recognized. Most pregnancies were uneventful (without death or aortic dissection) in both TGFBR2 and FBN1 families (38 of 39 versus 213 of 217; P1). Seven patients (10%) with a TGFBR2 mutation fulfilled international criteria for Marfan syndrome, 3 of whom presented with features specific for Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Conclusions—Clinical outcomes appear similar between treated patients with TGFBR2 mutations and individuals with FBN1 mutations. Prognosis depends on clinical disease expression and treatment rather than simply the presence of a TGFBR2 gene mutation. (Circulation. 2009;120:2541-2549.)





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